Sand Key Lighthouse – kayaking to the “southern star” of the offshore Keys reef lights!

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Sixteen miles of open water surfski adventure

paddling off Key West.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor satellite

Sand Key Lighthouse in relation in Key West and Ft Zachary Taylor State Park.

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If you’ve been following this site you might have noticed

my fascination with offshore ocean paddling

and local lighthouses.

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Map of all six offshore Florida Keys reef lighthouses.
Photo credit: U.S. Coast Guard Archives.

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This story combines open water paddling,

snorkeling and photography with interesting bits of

South Florida nautical history!

After paddling out to Miami’s Fowey Rocks Light, Key Largo’s Carysfort Light, Islamorada’s Alligator Reef Light, Marathon’s Sombrero Reef Lighthouse and Sugarloaf’s American Shoal Lighthouse – the last one in the chain is the Sand Key Lighthouse off Key West!

All these South Florida lighthouses were built in the 19th and early 20th centuries and also include four more land-accessible lighthouses: the Cape Florida Lighthouse, the Hillsboro Inlet Lighthouse, the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse and historic Key West Lighthouse.

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Sand Key light on the horizon as seen from Ft Zachary Taylor State Park, summer 2020.
Super telephoto view, eight miles away as the Man-o’-war bird flies!

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Sand Key Lighthouse has a long history which involves two lighthouses, many hurricanes, several keepers quarters, nesting birds and a sometimes there, and sometimes not island – aka Sandy Key. Two hundred years ago this was an actual island at least 150 x 50 feet. In more recent memory it has been more of a shifting shoal, sometimes disappearing altogether, sometimes a small sand bar. Today it’s just a tiny shoal, barely big enough to park a kayak or two on. I did not know what to expect paddling out there in the summer of 2020, but was hoping for some dry land!

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Ft Zachary Taylor State Park occupies the south west corner of Key West and is an excellent location for day trips around the island.
The Park is a nice change of pace from the otherwise touristy and people crazy Key West!

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Key West is the closest point of land to access Sand Key and the lighthouse. Although there are other choices, I determined that for my purposes, Ft Zachary Taylor State Park would be the best place to launch from. It’s a beautiful park with a nice sandy beach and a dedicated paddle craft launching area. It’s also a great chill change of pace from people crazy Key West!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

This is the actual and rather narrow paddle craft launching corridor on the park beach.
In reality it’s all that’s needed.
Note that upon entry, you will be asked to file a float plan if you plan to launch here!

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This was another solo paddling excursion, though I would generally discourage anyone from paddling out into open water solo. If you decide to do a paddle like this, I recommend you use the buddy system and file a float plan with someone who can check up on you. Things don’t always go as planned and there are many things that can go wrong when you are out to sea. There are unpredictable factors like the weather which can also put you into jeopardy and you do not want to be out there all by yourself.

That being said, I realize that the above statement might make me sound like a hypocrite, however there is a method to my madness! I generally avoid weekend paddling and thus it can be really difficult to find other capable paddlers able to go during the work week. Sometimes paddling partner(s) cancel out at the last minute. Other times I choose to go solo in order to be in the right frame of mind as to what “feels” right (i.e. artist’s prerogative). It lets me do all the photography I want, do the trip the way I want, etc. I always thoroughly research my options before hand and then pick the most favorable conditions and equipment suitable to the trip. I am prepared to face some reasonable risk and deal with the consequences if need be!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

ONEWAY is that a way –>

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

I planned a round trip paddle, but decided to go ONEWAY! 😉

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The choice of boat for a particular trip is like choosing the right tool for the job. Sure, you can probably do a trip like this with shorter boats given enough stamina and dedication. However longer distances will favor faster, longer and sleeker boats. My old surfski “ONE WAY” fits the job description well. It is very fast, relatively comfortable and stable, and as a sit on top design makes snorkeling super easy. Also, one could argue that it is a superior and safer setup for tropical touring than a traditional sit inside sea kayak. I would actually rate this boat as my safest option for offshore paddling. This is because I rebuilt her with probably more than half styrofoam by volume inside!

Since ONE WAY is a sealed boat, everything has to go on top of the deck. I’ve customized her with extra fittings for lines and bungees to make this easier. Primarily I use a low profile “fish cooler” insulated pack that attaches at six points just behind the seat. Inside I carry the absolute minimum needed to safely and effectively complete the trip. So I had 6 litres of water in a bladder (1.5 gallons), an extra 1 litre bottle, food and snacks, extra clothing, line, small drybag with phone/keys/wallet and another drybag with some camera gear. Behind the fish catch pack were my bungeed crocs along with the mandatory PFD. Behind that I had my mask, fins and snorkel under bungees. In front of me I  have a velcro strip on top of the footwell hump where I can attach a compass and my waterproof camera. That’s it!

Well, almost. I also made sure I had close to the perfect forecast!

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ONEWAY is my vintage fishform touring surfski, perfect for this kind of trip.
Surfski center stringer repair and the Findeisen Shearwater resurrection!

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Note:

I am describing a 16 mile open water round trip with NO possibility of getting out anywhere. Plan accordingly and paddle within your limitations and the weather conditions!!

Be absolutely sure you know what you are getting into before considering doing this kind of a trip!

Safety first means planning and research first!!

Always have plenty of fresh water to stay hydrated!

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This story completes my project of paddling out to

all six of the offshore reef lights in the Florida Keys!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Just before launching, this morning storm system developed to the east. Now what?!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

In a surfski averaging 5 mph or more isn’t too difficult. I also had some swells and waves to ride en route to Sand Key! 🙂

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Driving down to Key West, I noted some early morning storm activity on the ocean side. By the time I was ready to launch from Ft Zachary Taylor State Park, there was a good one developing to the east. After observing it’s track I determined it was moving due NW and decided to launch quickly in order to outrun it on a SW heading! Within a couple of miles paddling my hunch to outrun the morning storm proved correct. About mid way through the 8 mile trip, a couple of charter fishing boats came by to check up on me. They may have never seen anyone paddle out that far before. I thanked them!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

I made excellent time fueled by adrenaline and the desire to outrun storm.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1910

This is the second Sand Key Lighthouse which stands today and is of the skeletal iron construction type. It was erected in 1853 and seen in this photo circa 1910.
Image source: Photo courtesy Library of Congress (1910).

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1967

Sand Key and lighthouse circa 1967 with a bit of island still left!
Image source: Sand Key Lighthouse, Sand Key, Key West, Monroe County, FL

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Sand Key Lighthouse, summer 2020.

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I made pretty good time, reaching the lighthouse in an hour and a half. Upon arrival I was really happy to see that in fact there was a tiny little shoal of dry ground on the east side, maybe about 30ft long and 6ft wide! I was catching it at just before low tide on this day and would certainly be leaving again before mid-tide flood. The tide differential out there is only about a foot, but even so this shoal would be just submerged at high tide. What’s left of Sand Key isn’t really sand, but more like small pieces of coral and ground up shells, etc. It is the nature of these shoals to shift over time, so there is no guarantee that it will be there in the future. Likely it will shift to another location or disappear completely again.

This is why you can never count on any dry ground at Sand Key!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

I didn’t know what to expect upon arrival, but this lil spit of dry land was a true blessing! 🙂

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Sand Key used to be a sizeable island in the 19th century. In the 21st century it’s a wild card; some years there’s a shoal, other years just water.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Today’s Sand Key isn’t really ‘sand’, but made of small pieces of coral and ground up shells, etc..

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1827

Sketch by William Adee Whitehead of the original Sand Key Lighthouse circa 1834.
It was a brick masonry structure built in 1827 but destroyed by a very strong hurricane in 1846.
Reprint from the U. S. Lighthouse Society’s “The Keeper’s Log” — Summer 2003

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The original Sand Key Lighthouse was built in 1827!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1846

Possibly the earliest depiction of Sand Key from 1830s, showing the original brick lighthouse and keepers home.
Reprint from the U. S. Lighthouse Society’s “The Keeper’s Log” — Summer 2003

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1863

Sketch of Sand Key from 1863!
Image source: Sand Key Lighthouse, Sand Key, Key West, Monroe County, FL

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The original Sand Key Lighthouse was totally destroyed by a powerful hurricane in 1846, and the 140-ton lightship “Honey” was then anchored nearby as a temporary substitute.

Finally in 1853 a new skeletal iron type lighthouse was erected, the one still standing today.

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Click to access sand_key.pdf

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The iron screw pile construction method for Sand Key light utilizes 17 load bearing piles as compared to the more typical 8 found in the other offshore lighthouses. This gives the lighthouse a very distinctive  and immediately recognizable pyramid like design. It has proven to be very strong, having survived numerous fierce storms and hurricanes that have repeatedly washed away the Sand Key (island) itself!

July 16, 2020 ..

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Satellite view of Sand Key in 2017, we can still see the similar triangular outline of the 19th century key.

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Station SANF1 – Sand Key

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Latest 2017 satellite view shows a spit of sand to the south. By 2020 this had shifted to the east of the lighthouse!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Standing on Sand Key proper, but note that I am actually two feet underwater! 😉

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1899

Sand Key Lighthouse on July 16, 1899 – looking due east.
Image source: floridamemory.com

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Oh, what synchronicity?!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

An unplanned coincidence, but my arrival at Sand Key was on July 16, 2020.
Cheers!!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Having a ‘fiesta privada’ picnic under the Sand Key Lighthouse, afternoon of July 16, 2020.

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Two picnics exactly a 121 years apart!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1899

A watermelon picnic under the Sand Key Lighthouse on July 16, 1899!
Image source: floridamemory.com

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

I continue with a home grown mango picnic on July 16, 2020. 🙂

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1950

By 1950 the island was almost gone, leaving just the lighthouse and dock.
Photo source: USCG Archives

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Aerial view of Sand Key Lighthouse, sand spit and surfski – summer 2020.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

A peek a lil over 20ft up at the keepers quarters deck. The whole structure burned in 1989.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Fisheye panorama of the base of Sand Key light with Station SANF1 to the right.

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Station SANF1 – Sand Key

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Rusting iron of the Sand Key Lighthouse, summer 2020.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

More than 160 years of rust and wear on these iron cross-braces at Sand Key.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Swollen rusted tensioning turnbuckle at Sand Key Lighthouse.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

The iron foundation casings are still in good shape after more than 160 years!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1967

This part hasn’t changed much since this 1967 even with little or no maintenance.
Image source: Sand Key Lighthouse, Sand Key, Key West, Monroe County, FL

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

“Man-o’-war” or Frigate Birds at Sand Key light.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

The top of Sand Key Lighthouse, summer 2020.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

The little sand spit shoal was just big enough for me to hang out on for about three hours.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Waves lapping up on the Sand Key Lighthouse structure, summer 2020.

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Note:

I am describing a 16 mile open water round trip with NO possibility of getting out anywhere. Plan accordingly and paddle within your limitations and the weather conditions!!

Be absolutely sure you know what you are getting into before considering doing this kind of a trip!

Safety first means planning and research first!!

Always have plenty of fresh water to stay hydrated!

.

flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1967

Sand Key Lighthouse iron footing disc support, circa 1967.
Image source: Sand Key Lighthouse, Sand Key, Key West, Monroe County, FL

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

The same supports in July 2020.

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These large iron discs were an important innovation in the mid to late 19th century when these iron pile skeletal frame lighthouses were being built. They helped to spread out the weight to reinforce the foundation screw or pile, often driven 10ft deep into the coral and or soft limestone bedrock.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Here we can see that in 2020, some discs are in great shape, others completely undermined and wholly compromised!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Erosion over the last 160+ years has fully undermined this footing plate at Sand Key Lighthouse.

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The innovative screw pile and footing discs were developed by Alexander Mitchell in Ireland. He was a self taught blind engineer who pioneered this technology for use in silty and sandy soils. It proved perfect for the Florida offshore lighthouses as they have all withstood numerous storms and hurricanes over the many decades. Of course, the lights are now in need of restoration and maintenance if they are to continue standing over the reefs!

Sand Key Lighthouse history

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

19th century illustration of an iron screw pile being driven into the soft coral limestone rock. The workers are standing on a platform in open water. Sometimes draft animals were also used!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1853

Detail of screw pile foundation driving tip from 1853.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Looking straight up the middle of Sand Key Lighthouse.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Straight up view of Sand Key Lighthouse from underwater.

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Sand Key has it’s own special Sanctuary Preservation Area which has further restrictions on allowed activities to help protect the health of the reef. The reef is similar other tracts in the lower keys. I only had enough time for a brief shallow excursion, but if you come to snorkel, there are several white mooring buoys to tie off to.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski Sanctuary Preservation Area

Sand Key Sanctuary Preservation Area

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski Sanctuary Preservation Area

Sand Key Sanctuary Preservation Area

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

A mix of sun and clouds on a July day in 2020 at Sand Key Lighthouse.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Diving in just off Sand Key to check out the underwater scene.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

The lighthouse is surrounded by a very shallow but colorful reef.

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Sand Key Sanctuary Preservation Area

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

A mix of bleaching and totally bleached corals at Sand Key, off Key West.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Colony of Orbicella annularis, aka Boulder Star Coral at Sand Key.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Close up of Orbicella annularis, showing beginning of bleaching.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Sadly large sections of the shallows appear dead and covered with algae. Then there are lots of these organisms which seem to grow on top of that. Im not sure what this is, but it kinda looks like some kind of parasitic growth.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

The very shallow waters just to the south of Sand Key Lighthouse.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Panorama from Sand Key Lighthouse, summer 2020.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1960

Sand Key Lighthouse in 1960.
Image source: floridamemory.com

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1910

Sand Key Lighthouse and weather station, colorized photo circa 1910!
Image source: Photo courtesy Library of Congress (1910).

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Sand Key Lighthouse, summer 2020.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Large school of juvenile mullet fish in about a foot of water next to the lighthouse.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

The tiny mullet were getting tossed up by wave action onto the lil shoal I was parked on.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

I scooped up the larger mullet and repatriated them into the sea to prevent such an early and inglorious ending!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Above and below the water at Sand Key Lighthouse.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

By mid afternoon I had spent about three hours parked on the lil shoal.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Just about ready to paddle ONEWAY back to Key West!

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By 2017, Sand Key lighthouse was deemed surplus property by the USCG. Along with all the other (except Fowey Rocks) offshore keys lights, Sand Key was up for auction. On November 27, 2020, the auction closed with a high bid of $83,000 from an unknown entity. I do know that LighthouseFriends.com was however NOT the winner, so hopefully the new owner(s) will be able to restore and take care of this historic lighthouse!

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Telephoto view looking due NE into a 15 kt breeze, back towards Key West, eight miles away.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Almost the entire return trip was into a steady 15 kt headwind with resultant nasty annoying chop in shallow water which slowed me down considerably.

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The return trip back to Key West took two hours because of a 15 knot headwind and resultant short chop. This is pretty much the least fun of upwind paddles because the short chop causes the boat to constantly slap on the backs of the waves. This slows the boat down considerably, I was lucky to average even only 4 knots.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Arrival back at Ft Zachary Taylor State Park after two hours of slapping into the waves. I went ONEWAY and made it back .. 😉

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ONEWAY is a “rebuilt” vintage fish form surfski and makes an excellent tropical longer distance day cruiser.

See a comparison with a modern swede form ski:

A tale of two surfskis 20 years apart (Stellar SES vs Findeisen Shearwater).

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

The beach at Ft Zachary Taylor is fenced off from the Key West Naval Air Station – Truman Annex.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Radar paraphernalia at Key West Naval Air Station – Truman Annex.

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The original masonry lighthouse at Key West was first lit on January 13, 1826. However it was also destroyed by the same 1846 hurricane that destroyed Sand Key light. On January 15, 1848, the current lighthouse was completed, later extended in height by about 25 feet in 1895.

I could easily see this light at Key West on my return approach, although it doesn’t seem so tall in comparison to the adjacent foliage and other buildings today.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor 1943

A postcard of the historic Key West Lighthouse from 1943.

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Key West Lighthouse

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Key West Lighthouse, summer of 2020.

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My quest to paddle out to all

six Florida Keys offshore lighthouses is now complete!

🙂

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

“Day and night under the light!”
It would really be an incredible experience to spend a night under the lighthouse.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor

Then comes the drive back from the Keys. The divided US 1 highway makes it so much less stressful than it used to be~!

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Please note:

I am describing a 16 mile open water round trip with NO possibility of getting out anywhere. Plan accordingly and paddle within your limitations and the weather conditions!!

Be absolutely sure you know what you are getting into before considering doing this kind of a trip!

Safety first means planning and research first!!

Always have plenty of fresh water to stay hydrated!

.

flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor satellite

Sand Key Lighthouse in relation to the lower Keys and Gulf Stream.

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flex maslan Kayakfari reef sand key west lighthouse kayak paddle dive history photography surfski fort zachary taylor satellite

All six offshore lighthouses of the Florida Keys chain, from Miami to Key West!

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Be safe and enjoy your time

on the water and underwater!

🙂

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! Bless UP

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© 2021 Flex Maslan / kayakfari.com / awakenthegrass.com. All original photographs, artworks and music in this portfolio are copyrighted and owned by the artist, Flex Maslan, unless otherwise noted. Any reproduction, modification, publication, transmission, transfer, or exploitation of any of the content, for personal or commercial use, whether in whole or in part, without written permission from the artist is strictly prohibited.

All rights reserved!

DISCLAIMER:

The maps and images on this site are not intended for navigation, I am not a guide; use any and all information at your own risk! Your mileage may vary .. so use good judgement before venturing out!

I hereby disclaim any sponsorship, endorsement, nor association with any product or service described herein. The photographs, depictions, products, and ideas presented on this site are for informational purposes only. Your results may vary, and I do not imply nor guarantee the effectiveness, suitability, design or operation to adhere to any standard. I assume no legal responsibility for the implementation of anything herein presented! Use any and all information at your own risk! By using any and all information from this website, you accept the final liability for any use or possible associated misuse!

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With that said..
Blessings friends!

🙂